Hello and Welcome to the blog of my Zenfolio site.

Ideally I would like this to be the first port of call for visitors to this site as all updates and relevant links will be posted here, so therefore it will be easier to see my most recent pictures whether it be rail, road or miscellaneous photographs. Of course there is also the search facility on the site too in case you want to look for a specific loco number, vehicle registration plate or a keyword.

There will always be something happening on here, whether it's recent pics being uploaded or older negatives and slides being scanned on (more applicable to the railway side of things). 


3-in-7 Heart of England Rover, Day #1. 18/06/18

June 20, 2018  •  Leave a Comment

Hi Folks,

For the first time in about a decade, yes it's really been that long since I last did a rail rover ticket, I treated myself to a 3-in-7 Heart of England Rover ticket, which costs £86.20. For the area covered, from Leicester and Nottingham in the East, to Northampton, Oxford, Gloucester and Hereford in the South, Shrewsbury and Chester in the East and Crewe and Derby in the North and points in between, £86.20 seems a pretty fair price, from my point of view with all the services that are available, the only restriction is that it is only valid from 9am onwards (any time on weekends or bank holidays).

Starting off at Nuneaton Railway Station, mainly due to the fact the car parking is better and there's more services available to use as well, my first train of the day was at 09:10, which was CrossCountry Trains 170107. The 3-car DMU was quite healthily loaded as we departed Nuneaton on time for Birmingham New Street, just a minute or so after leaving Nuneaton, we pass by Abbey Street Junction and Station, it's hard to believe that this was once a busy junction and sidings, where the former Nuneaton & Ashby Joint Railway branched off towards Stoke Golding, Market Bosworth and finally Coalville and Moira on the current freight-only line between Leicester and Burton On Trent. The N&AJR seen it's passenger services cease as far back as 1931, but goods trains continued to use the line for another 40 years, until British Rail closed the line in 1971, a small section has since reopened and operates under the auspices of The Battlefield Line Railway between Shenton and Shackerstone. 

Part of the former Nuneaton Abbey Street Station can still be discerned through the overgrowth just the other side of the Midland Road overbridge, this was a victim of the infamous Beeching Axe, closing in March 1968. 

Passing through the Arley Tunnel, we now head into rural Warwickshire and shortly pass the site of the now demolished Daw Mill Colliery, which closed in 2013 and demolished soon after.

Rounding the curve at Whitacre Junction, we arrive at one of two intermediate stations between Nuneaton and Birmingham of Coleshill Parkway, the second one, Water Orton is only a couple of minutes away, and having past under the M42 Motorway, we are soon passing the delapidated station that is Water Orton, the main railway line from Derby via Tamworth also converges here and it is more or less a straight run into Birmingham passing alongside the elevated M6 motorway as well as the remains of Washwood Heath Yard, this area of Birmingham is set to change within the next few years with the impending arrival of HS2. Just prior to arriving into Birmingham New Street, we pass under the WCML from London Euston via Coventry and also the former GWR route from Birmingham Moor Street, nowadays a popular service operated by Chiltern Railways.

Arriving into Birmingham New Street, I had about just under half an hour before my next journey, and as such I used the time to venture to different platforms to see what units were about and to see if there was any "cops" to be had, sure enough there was a couple I required.

Leg 2, was to take me from Birmingham New Street, to one of the Southernmost points that is covered by the Heart of England Rover;Oxford, CrossCountry Trains Class 221, 221134 was the unit, and the service was 1O10 Manchester Piccadilly - Bournemouth, with an on time departure from Birmingham New Street at 10:04, the route was taken via Birmingham International to Coventry, where then we would say goodbye to the West Coast Mainline and take the branch to Leamington Spa, a route which has seen a resurgence in passenger traffic in the last couple of months with the reopening of Kenilworth Station at the end of April, the station has enjoyed healthy usage since the town returned to the railway network after a hiatus of 53 years, Kenilworth's original station was closed in 1965 - a victim of the infamous Beeching Axe.

Somehow or other, we lost time between Birmingham International and Coventry, I expect as we were following a local service, we were more or less 5 minutes late from Coventry all the way to Oxford, not helped by the fact I was standing in a vestibule all the way due to the number of people on the train. Departing Leamington Spa, it was a fast run to Banbury and then Oxford. I must admit, I wasn't sorry to see the back of 221134, and a quick wonder round Oxford Station, scoring some more units (there was only 2 Chiltern ones awaiting the service to London Marylebone).

Leg 3 was a lot more pleasant trip, definitely the most pleasant of the day I must say, and was also the main reason of this trip anyway, a trip along the Cotswold and Malvern Line from Oxford all the way to Hereford, and the train for this was one of the iconic High Speed Train - or HST. Quite a lot of people disembarked at Oxford, more less leaving the train empty but a fair few also boarded, the traction was provided by GWR power cars 43015 at the front, and 43018 at the rear, working 1W01 London Paddington - Hereford. Make the most out of the High Speed Trains on the Great Western Railway network as they are slowly being phased out in favour of more modern IET (Intercity Express Train) Class 800 bi-mode units, which can operate by both diesel and overhead electrification.

Departing the university city, we followed the route North for a short distance before taking the Cotswold Line at Wolvercote Junction, calling at many small stations en-route, so much so, an announcement was made prior to each call of where to alight the train as some coaches wouldn't be on the platform, it is also pleasing to see the vast infrastructure improvements over the last few years to increase capacity along the line between Worcester and Oxford, the most common one being the re-doubling of many parts between Charlbury  and Evesham, and even the station of Honeybourne has some improvements to the station, mainly for a time in the future to allow the preservation movement of the Gloucestershire Warwickshire Railway to run their trains into Honeybourne. After leaving the last station on the Cotswold Line at Pershore, it is a short distance before we cross the Midland Railway route from Birmingham to Bristol, of note you can see construction of the new Worcester Parkway Station on the mainline. 

Worcester Shrub Hill is soon reached, with it's signal boxes and semaphore signals, and literally a couple of minutes away is Worcester Foregate Street - which is more centrally located for the City of Worcester. Leaving Worcester over an impressive viaduct that takes us above street level and the River Severn, the route somewhat reminds me of leaving Nottingham Arkwright Street heading South over the River Trent on the former Great Central Mainline after I had seen a video on YouTube of the aforementioned route before British Rail axed the spur in the 1970's. Perhaps if politics had have been different maybe we would have seen HST services running up and down the Great Central Mainline today??.

Another 2 small stations in quick succession are 6 miles away at Malvern Link and Great Malvern, at this point the Malvern Hills are clearly seen, leaving Great Malvern, we pass under the Hills in a single bore tunnel before emerging into daylight at Colwall, and shortly after we arrive at Ledbury where there is a passing loop; the track between Malvern Wells Junction and Shelwick Junction is predominantly single track with the exception of Ledbury, where, as mentioned previously, there is a passing loop, although looking at Ledbury viaduct with it's wide formation, this suggests that the line may have been double track in the distant past. Passing through glorious Herefordshire countryside, we soon join up with the Welsh Marches Line at Shelwick Junction and we're once again on double track to Hereford.

Leaving the HST at Hereford, it was over to Platform 3, and the start of Leg 4. There was only a very short wait, 7 minutes to be precise, before my next train, Arriva Trains Wales 175109 arrived, which was working 1W60 Carmarthen - Manchester Piccadilly service. This was quite a busy train but luckily I managed to obtain a seat, this part of the journey would take me just under an hour up the line to Shrewsbury, calling at Leominster, Ludlow, Craven Arms (where the Heart of Wales line branches off), Church Stretton and finally Shrewsbury, with it's iconic 180-lever manually controlled signalbox and with Network Rail suggesting that replacing the semaphore signals in favour of colour lights could make Shrewsbury complicated to marshal trains, the semaphores and associated signal boxes look set to remain for the foreseeable future.

At Shrewsbury however, the plan  began to go awry, originally I had planned to catch the next service at 15:29 to Chester, then jump on the Virgin Trains service to Crewe and then sample East Midlands Trains over the North Staffs line to Derby, before going to Nottingham, Leicester and back home, however, it was announced that the 15:29 would be 10 minutes late, we eventually got away at 15:44, and a further 8 minute delay ensued at Gobowen, stopping at Gobowen, Chirk, Ruabon and Wrexham General, before arriving into Chester 22 minutes late. Only option available was the 16:55 Chester - Crewe bouncer, which on this occasion was 150258, and as such this was Leg 6.

Arriving at Crewe after a fantastic trip from Chester, and seriously I liked it as I have a thing for Class 150's as they are nippy little units, I decided to weigh up all my fast-diminshing options. The next departure to Derby was 18:07, in theory this would still give me time to get to Derby, over to Nottingham, back to Leicester and than a fast service from Leicester to Nuneaton, but then the plan was finally scuppered as the inbound unit from Derby was delayed between Longton and Stoke On Trent. The only feasible service open was the service to London Euston.

Leg 7, and the final leg was London & NorthWestern Railway's 350114 working 1U42 18:02 Crewe - London Euston semi-fast, which would call at Alsager, Kidsgrove, Stoke On Trent, Stone, Stafford, Rugeley Trent Valley, Lichfield Trent Valley, Tamworth, Atherstone and Nuneaton. These semi-fast services are going to change as the eventual plan is to run them via the mainline to Stafford in the next 18 months or so.

10½ hours after leaving Nuneaton, I arrived at Platform 4, however the day wasn't quite done, as there was a few freight services that was imminent, so I hung about for those before finally calling it a day and heading home.  



HULL is an acronym for Haulage, Units & Loco Log :)


  • 09:10 170107 Nuneaton - Birmingham New Street.
  • 10:04 221134 Birmingham New Street - Oxford.
  • 11:25 43015 + 43018 Oxford - Hereford.
  • 13:55 175109 Hereford - Shrewsbury.
  • 15:44 175007 Shrewsbury - Chester.
  • 16:55 150258 Chester - Crewe.
  • 18:02 350114 Crewe - Nuneaton.




  1. 66434 6M36 Carlisle Yard - Mountsorrel.
  2. 66517 4L89 Crewe Basford Hall - Felixstowe. 
  3. 66538 4L37 Lawley Street - Felixstowe.
  4. 66540 4O18 Lawley Street - Southampton.
  5. 66557 4M55 Southampton - Lawley Street.
  6. 66568 4M56 London Gateway - Garston.
  7. 66593 4L96 Trafford Park - Felixstowe. 
  8. 66701 6M26 Eastleigh - Mountsorrel.
  9. 66750 6M35 Pengam Sidings - Clitheroe.
  10. 66756 6X41 Dagenham - Garston.
  11. 66957 4O90 Leeds - Southampton.
  12. 70015 4M95 Southampton - Trafford Park.
  13. 86639 + 86608 4M87 Felixstowe - Trafford Park.
  14. 90028 6X77 Dagenham - Mossend.
  15. 90040 + 90018 4S47 Daventry - Mossend.
  16. 90045 + 90043 4S45 Daventry - Coatbridge.



  1. 150107 1M66 Hereford - Birmingham New Street.
  2. 150210 2H33 Chester - Manchester Piccadilly.
  3. 150258 1K14 Chester - Crewe.
  4. 150284 2V12 Crewe - Cardiff Central (via HoWL).
  5. 153364 2K74 Birmingham New Street - Rugeley Trent Valley (with 170514).
  6. 153371 2Gxx Nuneaton - Coventry shuttle services.
  7. 158827 1G45 Aberystwyth/Pwllheli - Birmingham International (with 158841).
  8. 158830 1G50 Holyhead - Birmingham International.
  9. 158841 1G45 Aberystwyth/Pwllheli - Birmingham International (with 158827).
  10. 165128 2L28 Didcot Parkway - Oxford.
  11. 168321 1Y33 Oxford - London Marylebone (with 168327).
  12. 168327 1Y33 Oxford - London Marylebone (with 168321).
  13. 170101 1P02 Leicester - Birmingham New Street.
  14. 170104 1N40 Stansted Airport - Birmingham New Street.
  15. 170109 1L00 Ashchurch - Stansted Airport (cancelled between GCR and ASC).
  16. 170110 1K03 Birmingham New Street - Leicester.
  17. 170114 1P04 Leicester - Birmingham New Street (with 170522).
  18. 170398 1N41 Stansted Airport - Birmingham New Street.
  19. 170503 1J18 Birmingham New Street - Shrewsbury (with 170505)
  20. 170505 1J18 Birmingham New Street - Shrewsbury (with 170503).
  21. 170514 2K74 Birmingham New Street - Rugeley Trent Valley (with 153364).
  22. 170522 1P04 Leicester - Birmingham New Street (with 170114).
  23. 172215 2V22 Whitlocks End - Worcester Shrub Hill.
  24. 175007 1W94 Cardiff Central - Holyhead.
  25. 175009 1V97 Holyhead - Cardiff Central.
  26. 175102 1V96 Holyhead - Tondu (cancelled between TDU and MST).
  27. 175109 1W60 Carmarthen - Manchester Piccadilly.
  28. 175111 1V46 Crewe - Milford Haven (cancelled between MAN and CRE).
  29. 175114 1D30 Manchester Airport - Llandudno.
  30. 221104 5D32 Birmingham New Street - Barton Under Needwood.
  31. 221109 9M48 Glasgow Central - London Euston.
  32. 221118 1R13 HHD/Blackpool North - London Euston (with 221142).
  33. 221134 1O10 Manchester Piccadilly - Bournemouth.
  34. 221136 1M93 Paignton - Manchester Piccadilly.
  35. 221142 1R13 HHD/Blackpool North - London Euston (with 221118).
  36. 319386 2H50 Crewe - Manchester Piccadilly.
  37. 323235 2A91 Manchester Piccadilly - Crewe.
  38. 323230 2K31 Manchester Piccadilly - Crewe.
  39. 350114 1U25 London Euston - Crewe.
  40. 350125 1U20 Crewe - London Euston (with 350126).
  41. 350126 1U20 Crewe - London Euston (with 350125).
  42. 350257 2U21 Northampton - Crewe.
  43. 350374 2U23 London Euston - Crewe.
  44. 390104 1R08 Manchester Piccadilly - London Euston.
  45. 390114 1F10 London Euston - Liverpool South Parkway.
  46. 390119 1H38 London Euston - Manchester Piccadilly.
  47. 390122 1F23 London Euston - Liverpool South Parkway.
  48. 390141 1R25 Manchester Piccadilly - London Euston.
  49. 390148 9G11 London Euston - Birmingham New Street.























[LOG] Atherstone Sightings - 14/05/18.

May 16, 2018  •  Leave a Comment

Sightings from Atherstone, in Warwickshire during a nice sunny day, the main objective was to get 37601 dragging Crossrail 345034 from Crewe LNWR - Old Oak Common, also to get a few of Virgin Trains Pendolino units.

  • 12:23 90043 + 90041 4M27 Coatbridge - Daventry.
  • 12:35 170272 5K70 Norwich Crown Point - Crewe C.S.
  • 12:41 90049 + 90045 4S44 Daventry - Coatbridge.
  • 13:33 37601 + 345034 5Q73 Crewe LNWR - Old Oak Common.
  • 13:43 66416 4M81 Felixstowe - Crewe Basford Hall.
  • 14:37 66553 4L90 Crewe Basford Hall - Felixstowe.
  • 14:45 70015 4M63 Felixstowe - Ditton.
  • 15:37 66119 6V11 Dowlow - Wembley Yard.
  • 15:48 66027 4L56 Trafford Park - London Gateway.
  • 15:58 66561 4M58 Southampton - Crewe Basford Hall.
  • 16:01 90040 + 90018 4M25 Mossend - Daventry.
  • 16:30 170271 5L70 Crewe C.S. - Norwich Crown Point.
  • 16:43 66706 4L18 Trafford Park - Felixstowe.
  • 16:46 70014 4M61 Southampton - Trafford Park.
  • 16:50 66548 4M88 Felixstowe - Trafford Park.



221101, 221102, 221105, 221106, 221107, 221114, 221142.

350101, 350238, 350368, 350372.

390002, 390005, 390009, 390010, 390020, 390040, 390042, 390044, 390047, 390104, 390107, 390114, 390115, 390117, 390118, 390119, 390122, 390127, 390131, 390132, 390134, 390152, 390153, 390156.

[LOG] Sightings and Observations from D.I.R.F.T. - 19/04/18.

April 23, 2018  •  Leave a Comment

A session at an overbridge adjacent to the Daventry International Railfreight Terminal, or Barby Nortoft as it's also called, during a very pleasant and warm day.

  • 12:15 90045 + 90042 4S44 Daventry - Coatbridge.
  • 12:41 90016 + 90049 4M27 Coatbridge - Daventry.
  • 12:47 66552 4M94 Felixstowe - Lawley Street.
  • 13:46 66957 4L46 Lawley Street - London Gateway.
  • 14:12 90028 + 90037 4M25 Mossend - Daventry.
  • 14:27 66508 4M63 Felixstowe - Ditton.
  • 14:29 67005 + 67002 1Z55 London Euston - Burnley Manchester Road.
  • 15:24 66517 4M58 Southampton - Garston.
  • 15:29 66727 4M23 Felixstowe - Hams Hall.
  • 15:43 66567 4L90 Crewe Basford Hall - Felixstowe.
  • 15:59 70008 4M88 Felixstowe - Trafford Park.
  • 16:19 66093 6B30 Mountsorrel - Northampton.
  • 16:45 66085 4L56 Trafford Park - London Gateway.
  • 16:59 70011 4M87 Felixstowe - Trafford Park.
  • 17:05 66558 4L92 Ditton - Felixstowe.



350102, 350110, 350111, 350112, 350115, 350116, 350119, 350120, 350125, 350127, 350129, 350231, 350241, 350257, 350264, 350371, 350374, 350377.


I had come out hoping to see 350373, the sole London North Western Railway liveried Class 350, alas it didn't appear, still there's always another day right ;)







[LOG] Nuneaton Sightings. 16-04-18.

April 18, 2018  •  Leave a Comment

First session in quite a while seen a few hours at Nuneaton, which despite being a Monday (it's generally quiet) it turned out to be a good day to "Cop" things for the year.

  • 13:27 70010 4M81 Felixstowe - Crewe Basford Hall
  • 13:30 66598 4L46 Lawley Street - London Gateway.
  • 13:37 90028 + 90037 4M25 Mossend - Daventry.
  • 13:39 66723 6M26 Eastleigh - Mountsorrel.
  • 13:44 66564 4M94 Felixstowe - Lawley Street.
  • 13:57 66093 6G33 Mountsorrel - Small Heath.
  • 14:16 70806 + 70811 6M50 Westbury - Bescot.
  • 14:39 90041 4L90 Trafford Park - Felixstowe.
  • 14:41 66557 4M63 Felixstowe - Ditton.
  • 15:06 66707 4L22 Hams Hall - Felixstowe.
  • 15:10 66764 6M20 Coton Hill - Wellingborough.
  • 15:28 37800 0H70 Leicester L.I.P - Wolverton Centre Sidings.
  • 15:41 66107 6V11 Dowlow - Theale.
  • 15:42 66503 4M58 Southampton - Garston.
  • 15:49 66085 4L56 Trafford Park - London Gateway.
  • 15:49 66727 4M23 Felixstowe - Hams Hall.
  • 16:02 66529 4L57 Birch Coppice - Felixstowe.
  • 16:12 70020 4M61 Southampton - Trafford Park.
  • 16:26 66722 4M29 Felixstowe - Birch Coppice.
  • 16:35 66525 4O17 Lawley Street - Southampton.
  • 16:41 70008 4M88 Felixstowe - Ditton.
  • 16:42 66512 4L92 Ditton - Felixstowe.
  • 16:44 66777 6M40 Westbury - Stud Farm.
  • 16:46 66703 4L18 Trafford Park - Felixstowe.
  • 16:56 66548 0M05 Crewe Basford Hall - Willesden Euro Terminal.
  • 17:10 86622 + 86605 4M87 Felixstowe - Trafford Park.
  • 17:28 66773 0M68 Peterborough - Bescot.
  • 17:40 66762 4Z44 Longtown MOD - Wembley Yard.
  • 18:23 70011 4O29 Trafford Park - Southampton.
  • 18:24 66956 4M67 Southampton - Hams Hall.
  • 18:40 345032 5Z01 Crewe Carriage Sidings - Rugby.
  • 18:52 66763 + 66735 6L48 Garston - Dagenham.
  • 19:07 90049 + 90016 4S45 Daventry - Coatbridge.
  • 19:15 66957 4M56 London Gateway - Garston.
  • 19:17 345032 5Z02 Rugby - Crewe Carriage Sidings. 



170101, 170102, 170103, 170107, 170111, 170113, 170116, 170519, 170523, 170639.

221101, 221107, 221108, 221110, 221112, 221117, 221118.

350105, 350106, 350111, 350116, 350118, 350121, 350123, 350126, 350370, 350371, 350374, 350377.

390001, 390002, 390005, 390006, 390040, 390045, 390046, 390049, 390104, 390114, 390115, 390119, 390121, 390123, 390124, 390125, 390126, 390129, 390130, 390131, 390132, 390134, 390136, 390137, 390154, 390155, 390157.

Overall, it was a pleasant day, and nice to see my first ever Class 345 EMU, which will eventually be used on The Elizabeth Line on the London CrossRail network.







An 8F at the Great Central Railway.

February 15, 2018  •  Leave a Comment

Speedy Steam.Speedy Steam. Monday 12th February seen a TIMELINE EVENTS photo charter take place at the Great Central Railway in Leicestershire, commencing at Loughborough Central. The loco for the day was BR Class 8F, 48624 in BR Black livery. As it was to a freight themed photo charter, GCR regulations state that no passengers are to be carried on goods trains so therefore photographers made their way to locations by road, which was easy enough.

Our first port of call was Swithland Sidings, with it's semaphore signals, passing loops and of course the junction for the small branch to Mountsorrel Quarry, it's a steam railway photographers dream recreating the halycon days of steam train travel, which of course is the main aim of Timeline Events - to recreate bygone ages whether it's railways, air, water, road or even period dressed cameo scenes. The first set of shots seen the 8F paired up with a mixed freight rake, which was parked up in one of the sidings, and seen perform quite a few run pasts, starting off at the North end where the Mountsorrel Quarry branches off and the various semaphore signals, before gradually working our way down to the Southern part of the loops. 

Afterwards, the mixed freight rake was put away and the windcutter mineral wagons were brought out, of course the fast, windcutter freight services were the main stay of the Great Central Railway when it was part of the UK rail network, and provided the bread and butter of the GCR's London Extension right up until 1965 when freight services were diverted to other routes, and the rundown continued until closure in 1966 as a through route. The 8F certainly looked the part as she strutted her stuff and indeed, photographs do exist of 8F's working the windcutter services between Annesley, Nottinghamshire and Woodford Halse in Northamptonshire, although 9F's were the main loco's.

After we had our fill of Swithland Sidings, we moved a bit further up the line to another location known as Rabbit Bridge, which is just the other side of Swithland Reservoir from Swithland Sidings. Rabbit Bridge has seen a fair bit of pruning of the undergrowth of late to make the location more appealing for photographers on charters as well as lineside pass holders. Again, the 8F was faultless and it would be very easy to imagine you were back in the late 50's/early 60's and seeing an 8F on a Woodford-bound freight service.

Our next location was Kinchley Lane, probably one of the most popular spots on the Great Central Railway for photographers, and offers fantastic views of Southbound services. The 8F was once again put through her paces for a series of run pasts for photographers and the videographers (I was doing both so it was nice to get a bit of variety). Just before 2pm, bearing in mind we'd been photographing since 8am, it was decided that the loco would return to Swithland Sidings to put the windcutter rake away, return to Loughborough to get watered and for the crew to have a break, before returning to Quorn to collect the next, and final rake; the recently repainted van train. Estimating it would take an hour to an hour and a half, we set off for some lunch, coming back into Quorn, we decided to go to the Butler Henderson Cafe at Quorn & Woodhouse Station to get fed and watered, looking at the menu, the All Day Breakfast really stood out and I thought "Ooo, that'll do me nicely...". 

After some time elapsed, it was noticed that the 8F had returned from Loughborough, and after passing through Quorn & Woodhouse, had set back to collect the van train from one of the sidings. Our organiser, Neil, was made aware and such we all finished off our food and drink before heading back to Kinchley Lane for the next set of run pasts with the van train. In the meantime, the train crew waited patiently for us to get into position at Kinchley Lane, before being given the go ahead that we were in position, before performing the first run past with the vans, and a lovely looking ensemble it was too, the vans are a real credit to the volunteers who have given up their spare time to repaint them, I understand that a few more are to be done over time as well to make a longer train. Sadly, as time was getting on, and with the still relatively short days at this time of year, we didn't have time to visit any more locations and before long time was called just after 5pm.

Still, it was a fantastic day of photography, and mostly in the glorious Winter sunshine too. As ever, grateful thanks to Neil Cave of Timeline Events and of course the staff at the Great Central Railway who gave up their free time to allow this charter to take place.